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Indian Higher Education

Article of the website DRSPDASTHAKUR IndianHigherEducation, created on: 9/15/2010 6:03:52 PM

By: DR.SATIPRASANNA DASTHAKUR | Published: 15/09/2010 18:15 | |

INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION ( PRE & POST INDEPENDENT STATUS IN BRIEF)

1.0       INTRODUCTION:

1.1       India has a glorious past with enrichment of traditional learning being regarded as the best pursuit of the mankind. Indian Education has gone though a series of reformation and transformation for quest of knowledge to be transmitted to all round prosperity in building the nation through number of policies including National Educational Policy framework since pre-independence. The recognition and contributions of ancient Indian University of Nalanda ornamented with the visits of foreign scholars/ visitors to India in ancient time are still remembered along with the world’s most ancient Academy and University which had already made an international mark in global education and learning.

1.2       Education imparts knowledge and skills, provides values and shapes attitudes. Education plays a vital role in the growth and progress of the society vis-à-vis the nation and is recognized as an important aspect of human capital building either in areas of Arts, Science & Technological human innovation or in human capital strength or stocks determining speed of absorbing Arts, Science & Technology and related areas followed by inculcation of continuous knowledge and information working as a newly understood asset.

1.3       Universities and Institutions are the places for wisdom of knowledge and pursuit of excellence. A nation’s growth & development directly proportionate with national values, scientific & technical strength vis-à-vis industrial temperament and development created through overall quality & standard of University education provided by eminent and well reputed teachers followed by internationally comparable & competitive quality tools in the form of powerful infrastructure & facilities. Values percolate from top to bottom and when such values are inducted among students aspiring quality education in an excellent and internationally competitive higher education environment meaning infrastructure and facilities in Universities/ Institutions of higher learning, the nation gets real citizens from all sections of the Society irrespective of caste, creed or religion. However, in today’s global changing scenario and huge transformation in the Indian higher education, the status of quality higher education statistics and information with continuous activities of data acquisition, requisition, updating and management information system is the key to the knowledge base which practically plays a very vital role towards achieving the desired goa in the growth and development vis-à-vis in nation building.

1.4       This Book/ Publication is an attempt to provide all round status of Indian Higher Education which may benefit users of all kinds who are in touch with Higher & Technical Education. It will support all academic users communities, students & their parents,  teachers & researchers,  higher & technical executives,  planners,  policy makers, the Statutory / Professional Councils, the Assemblies, the Parliaments, Parliamentarians, Professional & Management Bodies, Organizations and other users.

1.5       All the users may at least be benefited with a critical and overall view of the present Indian Higher Education with its growth in brief even prior to Pre Independent and Post Independent India in addition to their specific needs and individual interests.

2.0        Indian Higher Education Scenario :

2.1       Pre-Independent Higher Education Higher Scenario: The initiatives of the first Governor General of India with the establishment of Calcutta Madrasa in 1781 and Banaras Sanskrit College in 1791 were the first step and really paved the way for number of Institutions of higher education through different Agencies. Charles Grant, called the Father of modern education in India described the condition of Indians and the path of providing education was cleared. In 1811, Lord Minto, Governor General of India, an admirer of oriental literature improved the Madrasa and the College with establishment of Hindu College at Nadia and other institutions of higher learning founded with different motives but without clear policy on education till 1854. The Macaulay presented the new education policy. In 1837, English was made as the language of administration in the hope that English language and English culture would filter down the masses and the system of English education took root. But during 1854-1900 encouraging indigenous education and planning a coherent educational policy for education of the masses helped college education to take rapid strides. Universities were established. Provision was made for use of Indian Languages in examinations but the University could not take it resulting neglect of Indian language and English became the accepted medium of instruction. The establishments of Universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras on the model of London University in 1857 have far reaching consequences especially on the content range and scope of Secondary education. In 1860, Indian Universities (Degree) Act was passed, empowering the Universities to confer such diplomas or degrees as had been approved by the bye-laws or regulations. In 1947-48, Pre-independent India, there were 23 Indian Universities, 496 colleges with 215000 students as compared to 3 universities, 27 colleges and 250 enrolments in the year 1857.

2.2       Post Independent (1947-2006) Higher Education growth: Indian Higher Education has already made considerable progress, growth and development since Pre-Independence (1765-1947) and during 59 years of Post Independent (1947-2006). In 1950-51, there were 27 Universities and 1 Women University, 498 AC & UC colleges, 396745 students, 43126 women students, 3336 teachers (in university/institute), 93 women teachers (in university/ institute), 69 women Colleges. The same has (tentatively) increased many fold in 2005-06 where 357 University, 6 women university, 18064 Colleges (tentative), 110,28,020 students, 4466348 women students, 488004 teachers (UTD+AC), 1902 women colleges. The recent phase of cutting information edge, global access of knowledge, rapid and profound transformation and international competition arising out of entry of multinationals entering into Indian educational territory with modern technology and scientific temperament followed by its advanced infrastructure and facilities are very crucial in Indian context.

2.3       Status of growth of  universities and colleges at a glance  since independence:

Before Independence

University

Increased in Univs over the Proceeding Years

Colleges

Increase in Colleges over the Proceeding years

1857-58

3

 

27

 

1859-1892

5

2

137

110

1901-1922

14

9

226

89

1923-1942

15

1

422

196

1843-1948

20

5

496

74

Plan Periods

 

 

 

 

Ist Plan 1951-56

38

6

1025

330

IInd       1956-61

56

18

1542

512

IIIrd       1961-66

86

30

2572

1030

Plan Holiday 1966-69

96

10

3112

540

IV-Plan 1969-74

117

21

4464

1052

V         1974-79

128

11

4460

296

VI        1980-85

150

22

5590

1130

VII       1985-90

186

36

7115

1525

Year-wise 1990-92

193

7

7761

646

VIII      1992-97

225

32

9940

2179

IX        1997-2002

261

36

15437

5497

X 2002-07 (As on 2005-06)

357

93

18064

2627

 

2.4       Historical Background of Indian Higher Education (Brief)  :

2.4.1    Policy under East India Company 1765-1813: The initiative of the first Governor General of India with the establishment of Calcutta Madrasa in 1971 and Bananas Sanskrit College in 1791 were the first step and really paved the way for number of Institutions of higher education through different Agencies. Charles Grant, called the Father of modern education in India described the condition of Indians and the path of providing education was cleared. Later in 1981, Lord Minto, Governor General of India, an admirer of oriental literature improved the Madrasa and the College with establishment of Hindu College at Nadia and other institutions of higher learning founded with different motives but without clear policy on education till 1854.

2.4.2    Policy under the British 1813-1853 envisaged the foundation stone of English educational system in India with encouragement, revival & improvement of literature, promotion of knowledge of Science and providing education on the doctrines of secularism and conservation. The new education policy was presented by the Macaulay. In 1837, English was made as the language of administration and the system of English education took root but with the aim of downward filtration theory, i.e. to provide higher education to the leisured and well to do classes, in the hope that English language and English culture would filter down the masses.

2.4.3    Policy under the British Crown 1854-1900 indicated regrets of adoption of the aforesaid down ward filtration theory rather admitted that the education of the masses had been totally neglected and sought encouraging indigenous education and planned a coherent educational policy. Even though greater part of the policy was not implemented but he college education took rapid strides. Universities were established. Provision was made for use of Indian Languages in examinations but the University could not take it resulting neglect of Indian language and English became the accepted medium of instruction. The establishments of Universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras on the model of London University in 1857 have far reaching consequences especially on the content range and scope of Secondary education. In 1860, Indian Universities (Degree) Act was passed, empowering the Universities to confer such diplomas or degrees as had been approved by the bye-laws or regulations. Punjab University was established especially for oriental learning and for instruction thorough medium of vernacular language of the province. The Mohammedan Anglo- Oriental College at Aligarh, started with few school classes in 1875, later developed into Aligarh Muslim University was established in 1920. The central college at Allahabad as the nucleus of a University for resident graduates started in 1972 and in 1887 special act of Incorporation established fifth University at Allahabad. In 1882, the University of Calcutta had 14 colleges in the lower province of Bengal and four in North Western Provinces, while the universities of Bombay and Madras had altogether three colleges. The Universities dominated secondary schools in every respect and the schools became merely a step towards the universities. The Indian Education Commission 1882 brought expansion in Universities by its recommendations but resulting gradual withdrawing from higher education and approval of lower fees in private institutions with rise of colleges. The principle of secular education in government and aided institutions came into effect. The mother tongue as a medium was completely neglected, the universities neglected vernacular/mother languages resulting defects in the universities so to say and courses of study became too academic for not having vocational or technical touch till 1880. However, the system witness growth of private colleges run by Indians, important educational events comprised the organization of education departments, development of the system of grants-in-aid, establishment of universities, extension of colleges, westernization of educational system and so on. In 1884, Indian Universities (Honorary Degrees) Act was passed which empowered three universities Calcutta, Bombay and Madras to confer the honorary degree of LLD.

2.4.4    Policy under the spirit of Nationalism: This phase witnessed the rise of the spirit of nationalism, which had impact on the development of education in India with special relevance to mass education followed by certain reforms in education. The Secret Education Commission or the Simla Conference of 1901 without any Indians came up. In 1902, the Indian Universities Commission was constituted and its views were embodied in Indian Universities Act 1904 which regularized the Governing Bodies and tightened the control of universities over affiliated colleges with wide education related topics with direct control over university policy. University education became the root of conflict and dissention reaching a climax with turning down the Indian languages as the media of instruction to replace English in 1915. In 1914 First World War out broke. With the policy in 1913, more universities were set up namely, SNDT Women’s University, Banaras, Mysore along with two PG departments under Calcutta University for direct teaching in 1916, Patna in 1917, Osmania in 1918. The Calcutta University Commission was appointed in 1917-1919 to make a thorough assessment of the entire university system & problems of Calcutta University. In 1921, The Published Report became a document of all India importance which evolved creating Intermediate colleges to provide instructions in Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering and Teaching to be attached to schools or to be run as independent institutions under the control of a Board of Secondary Education. Three-year duration for degree course with provision of honours course after intermediate was considered. The recommendations brought number of new universities and respective University Act for Dacca, Aligarh and Rangoon in 1920, Lucknow, Delhi, Nagpur, Andhra, Agra, Annamalai respectively in 1921, 1922, 1923, 1926, 1927 and 1929. Department of Education was transferred to the control of Indian Ministers.  During nationalism a view was generated that education should develop national character and it favored technical & vocational education.

2.4.5     Policy under Diarchy 1921-1937: This period is marked as the introduction of constitutional reforms and administrative changes and education became a provincial subject or “transferred subject” not in line with “reserved subject”, which deals with finance. However, civil disobedience and non-cooperation movement change direction with greater attention to political problems and little attention to education. Government recognized educational institutions were boycotted with the result of parallel Colleges / Vidyapiths and great declining of students in Government colleges. The Government of India Act introduced provincialisation of education with provincial autonomy in 11 provinces in 1935 and more power with wide opportunities in drawing educational programs under Montford Reforms 1937.

2.4.6    Policy under Provincial Autonomy 1937-1947: More funds were available for education with expansion of schemes for different levels of education and fillip for physical and vocational education. The Third World war outbroak and there was no education policy and schemes during 1940-1944. In 1945, The Central Advisory Board of Education examined various aspects of Indian Education to attain equal standards achieved in England and accepted requirement of 30-40 years to create the National System of Education and practically with the end of British Rule in India on 15 August 1947, National System of Education failed but domination of English language in higher education remained even after he British rule was over. There frequent changes of policies which went with the successive Viceroys, Governors and Directors of Public Instructions. Thus free India had to proceed with entire reformulation and remodeling of the entire education system with essential expansion of all the areas including advancement in Sciences, Engineering & Technology orienting towards national interests and building.

2.4.7    Post Independence India: While framing the new Constitution of India defining the educational policies as the joint responsibility of both the Centre and the States with the main aim of making education vital to the national growth and solidarity, the Government of India constituted University Education Commission 1948-49. The report on Indian University Education submitted by the Commission was highly significant and expressed university education in the concurrent list. It was well directed towards the development of university education with special reference to changes in curriculum, examinations, organization followed by greater emphasis on improvement of standards of higher education and attention to women’s education and rural universities.

3.0        Education Policy under Indian Constitution: The importance of Education was clearly indicated in Indian Constitution, since its adoption in 1950.  Number of important provisions which have direct or indirect bearing with education have thus been included in the Constitution. Education was included in the Concurrent List III under the Constitution 42nd Amendment Act 1976, item no 25. Similarly, division of responsibilities between the Government of India and the States were also incorporated. The Constitution had empowered the Centre to implement directly any policy decision in any State and the State has to follow the Center’s policy. On the other hand the National Organizations like UGC and national Bodies like CABE have the power and authority to take the initiative in formulating the education policy of the country as a whole. The 42nd Amendment gives equal powers to the Central & State Governments to frame educational policies.

4.0       Commissions/ Committees/ Act etc on Higher Education: The growth of higher education in India has been guided by recommendations and suggestion made by various Committees, Board and Commissions set up before and after Independence. They are The New Education Policy (Macaulay 1837), woods Dispatch (1854), Indian Universities (Degree) Act (1860), Indian Education Commission (1882) Hunter Commission (1882), Indian Universities (Honorary Degrees) Act (1884), Secret Education Commission or the Simla Conference (1901),   the Indian Universities Commission (1902), Indian Universities Act (1904), Indian languages as the media of instruction to replace English (1915),  Central Advisory Board of Education (1923), The Government of India Act (1935), Montford Reforms (1937), University Education Commission (1948-49) (headed by Dr.S.Radhakrishnan set out the aims of higher education), University Grants Commission (1948-49), Language Commission (1956), Inter-Universities Board (now known as Association of Indian Universities) (1964), Committee on Problems of University Administration (1969), Committee on Governance of Universities (1969), Review Committee on UGC (1977), Committee on the Working of Central Universities (1982) and so on.

5.0       The University Grants Commission (UGC) Act 1956: Under the University Grants Commission Act 1956 (3 of 1956), under Chapter I, item 2(f), “University” means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provisional Act or a State Act, and include any such Institution, as may, in consultation with the University concerned be recognized with the regulations made under this ACT. In the context of application of Act (item 3of the Chapter I) to Institutions for higher studies other than Universities, the Central Government, on the advice of the Commission, declare by notification in the official Gazette, that any institution for higher education other than a university, shall be deemed to be university for the purpose of this Act and on such declaration being made, all the provisions of this Act shall apply to such institution as if it were a University within meaning of clause (f) section 2. Affiliation (under section12A*)(1)(a) of the UGC Act 1956) includes, in relation to college. Recognition of such college with and admission of such college to the privileges of, a university. ‘College’ means any institution, whether known as such or by any other name, which provides for a course of study for obtaining any qualification from a university and which, in accordance with the rules and regulations of such university, is recognized competent to provide for such course of study for the examination for the award of such qualifications.

5.1       UGC Section 12B & 2(f): The importance of sections 12B & 2(f) of the UGC Act 1956 is well known to the Universities/ University level Institutions and all Institutions of Higher learning of the country which are reproduced as UGC Section12B No grant be given by the Central Government, the Commission, or any other organization receiving any funds from the Central Government, to a University which is established after he commencement of the University Grants Commission (amendment) Act 1972, unless the Commission has, after satisfying itself as to such matters as may be prescribed, declared such university to be fit for receiving such grant. Section 2(f) has already been mentioned.

5.2       Policies, Planning & Status: Indian Higher Education growth and development scenario is clearly evident from National Education Policies, planning, strategies, various steps in establishment of Universities, Colleges and Institutions, administration & structures, financial aspects and constrains. The panoramic view resulting from critical analysis, evaluation, assessment and overall review of Indian Higher Education system of a nation of 112 crores people succumbed with various aggravating problems and  crisis of castes, creeds or religions clearly confirm that considerable progress, contributions, achievements in Indian Higher Education have been made but still gray areas are evident when the youths and the huge demographic bulk of Indian population are facing lack of opportunities of admission into colleges or schools or their potential and energies are yet be exploited for the benefit of societal development, growth and nation building. It is rather gradually turning into national liability with chaos and topsy-turvy situation from the point of view of the caste, creed or religion which has always retarded the progress and growth of the great nation. Moreover, these youths, without proper education or employment opportunities are going totally out of spirit, essence and values of education and are unwillingly or forcibly getting diverted and join hands for misdeeds or acts of violence, destruction and illegal activities falling under the trap of bias or criminals connected with all misdeeds and acts resulting all sorts of corruption, violence and ultimate destruction of the society at large.

6.0           Education Policy under Indian Constitution – Concurrent List: The importance of Education was clearly indicated in Indian Constitution, since its adoption in 1950.  Number of important provisions which have direct or indirect bearing with education have been included in Indian Constitution. Under Article 246 of Indian Constitution, entries 63, 64, 65 and 66 in List I (Central List) and entry in List III (Concurrent List) clearly indicate the importance of education. Under Constitution ( 42nd Amendment ) Act 1976, item 25, education was included in List III, Similarly, division of responsibilities between the Government of India and the States were also incorporated. The Constitution had empowered the Centre to implement directly any policy decision in any State and the State has to follow the Center’s policy. On the other hand the National Organizations like UGC and national Bodies like CABE have the power and authority to take the initiative in formulating the education policy of the country as a whole. The 42nd Amendment gives equal powers to the Central & State Governments to frame educational policies. The other provisions include Education of Minorities (Article 29 (Part III)) under Fundamental Rights,  Education for Weaker Sections (Article 15 and 17 (Part III)) under Fundamental Rights,  Secular Education (Article 28), Women’s Education (Article 15) (part II), Development of Hindi (article 351)  (part XVII) (Ref Higher Education in India 1781-2003, UGC & CRRID.

6.1          Dr. D.S.Kothari Education Commission (1964) recommended inter-alia to set up six universities; promoting inter-disciplinary research in universities; development of affiliated colleges and granting autonomous status to outstanding ones; improvement in quality of teaching and learning; introduction of internal and continuous evaluation in place of external examination. The Commission realized the need for present three years first degree followed by second or research degree of varying durations.

6.2       In tune with the recommendation of the Education Commission, the first National Policy on Education was formulated in 1968 and with a fresh assessment of the status of Indian Education; the National Policy on Education was adopted in 1986. The NEP 1986 reaffirmed that education was a unique investment in the present and the future and envisaged its dynamism with constant emerging of newer areas in the context of unprecedented expansion of knowledge of higher education. It mentioned all-round needed improvement for the large number of universities and colleges so developed in the country with further emphasis on their consolidation and expansion. The NEP 1986 also brought ‘open university system’ as an instrument of democratizing and making education more accessible along with rural universities for the transformation of the rural areas.

7.0          Education Structure: The Article 246 allows both Central and State Governments to establish and administer universities; those in turn set up / affiliate college main bodies of higher education in India. Universities are Central as well as State Universities.

8.0       Main Higher Education Players :

8.1          Central Government, State Governments, Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), MHRD UGC, Statutory Councils and other Higher Education Coordinating Organization. Different bodies are required for coordination in and smooth working of higher education system in view of the involvement of both Centre and State. While the university system falls within the jurisdiction of the UGC, UGC is responsible for coordination,determination and maintenance of standards, release of grants to Universities and University level Institutions and Instituions of Higher Learning.

8.2       Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to the UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Educational Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.

8.3           Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) : The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).

8.4          State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance.

9.0          The Statutory Recognized Professional Councils, Other Councils/ Bodies/ Board Organizations working as Higher Education Partners: In addition to the Councils which have the statutory responsibilities there other Professional councils which are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards as per their mandates. Quite a good number Professional Councils have now been recognized with a Deemed – to- be University status too The other Councils and Coordination Bodies have their functions in their areas of their relevance as per their role and responsibilities. There are also other Higher Education Bodies at the state level, such as State Council of Higher Education and Medical Education. The Major Higher Education Councils, Coordinating Body and the organizations linked to Indian Higher Education listed below alphabetically  are AICTE, AIU, NCTE, MCI, BCI, CCIM, ICMR, PCI, DCI, CCH, CCIM, ICAR, ICPR, ICHR, ICSSR, IGNOU, INC, CSIR, RCI and NIEPA., NAAC, State Council of Higher Education, Medical Education etc : 

9.1       All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)

9.2       Association of Indian Universities (AIU)

9.3       Bar Council of India (BCI)

9.4       Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM)

9.5       Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)

9.6       Council of Architecture (COA)

9.7       Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)

9.8       Dentists Council of India (DCI)

9.9       Distant Education Council (DEC)

9.10     Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)

9.11     Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)

9.12     Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)

9.13     Indian Council of Social Sciences & Research (ICSSR)

9.14     Indian National Science Academy (INSA)

9.15     Indian Nursing Council (INC)

9.16     Indian Science Congress (ISC)

9.17     Medical Council of India (MCI)

9.18     National Accreditation & Assessment Council (NAAC)

9.19     National Board of Accreditation (NAB)

9.20     National Council for Rural Institutes

9.21     National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)

9.22     Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)

9.23     Rehabilitation Council

9.24     State Councils of Higher Education

9.25     State Education Directorates & Secretariats

9.26     Vocational Education Council

9.1         All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE): The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) Act 1987 was passed with a view to proper planning and coordinated development of technical education, promotion of qualitative improvement of such education in relation to planned quantitative growth and regulation and proper maintenance or norms and standards for for matters connected therewith. In the status of a Council it lay down norms and standards for courses, curricula, physical and instructional facilities, staff pattern, qualifications, quality instructions and other statutory responsibilities. The council is authorized to take all steps that are considered appropriate for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical education and for maintenance of standards. The Council may, amongst other things:

a.     Coordinate the development of technical education in the country at all levels;

b.     Evolve suitable performance appraisal system for technical institutions and universities imparting technical education, incorporating norms and mechanisms for enforcing accountability;

c.     =Laydown norms and standards for courses, curricula, physical and instructional facilities, staff pattern, staff qualifications, quality instruction, assessment and examinations;

d.     Grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for introduction of new course or programmes in consultation with the agencies concerned

9.1.1    AICTE Website provides a list of approved Institutes, state-wise for Degree and Diploma Programs in Engineering and Technology, MCA & MBA, Pharmacy, Architecture & Applied Arts, Hotel Management & Catering Technology and M.E./MTech / M.Pharm / M Arch. The site also provides list of programs accredited by National Board of Accreditation (NBA) under the AICTE.Website also provides model curriculum for UG Programs and list of books Visit http://www.aicte.ernet.in. . Related publications are Approval Process (a legal document), Directory of approved Institutions region wise in the areas of Engineering, Management (PG program), Architecture , Hotel Management, Pharmacy, Computer Applications (PG program) and related others.

9.2       Association of Indian Universities (AIU): Association of India Universities (AIU) is a coordinating agency which has its members from number of universities and other institutions of higher education. This Association although not enjoying executive powers yet plays an important role as an agency for dissemination of information on Higher Education as well as for equivalence of foreign degrees for admission to Indian Universities.  The Association of Universities has been publishing Universities Handbook containing all details of Member Universities of the Association. The recent publication ‘Equivalence of Foreign Degree’ has been providing details of foreign qualifications for which equivalence has been granted by AIU and other Universities in the country for admission to higher education courses.

9.3       Bar Council of India (BCI): The Bar Council of India is empowered to make rules to discharge its functions under the Advocates Act 1961. An important rule-making power is with reference to laying down guidelines for the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. The Bar Council of India Rules may prescribe for a class or category of person entitled to be enrolled as advocate. The Bar Council of India can also specify the conditions subject to which an advocate must have the right to practise and the circumstances under which a person must be deemed to practise as an advocate in a court.

9.4       Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM): The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine. The Council is responsible to frame regulations with respect to:

 a.    The courses and period of study, including practical training to be undertaken, the subject of examinations, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in any university, board or medical institution for grant of recognized medical qualifications;

 b.    The standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for education in Indian medicine;

 c.    The conduct of professional examinations, etc.

 d.   The website provides list of colleges recognized by the Council for education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. ,Visithttp://www.ccimindia.org

9.5       Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) : The Central Council of Homoeopathy was established under the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desires to grant a medical qualification in homeopathy is required to apply to the Council. The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith. All universities and Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities. Visit http://www.cchindia.com

9.6       Council of Architecture: The Council of Architecture (COA) was constituted under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is responsible to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of "Architect" must register himself with Council of Architecture.

9.6.1    The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture, provided he holds a Certificate of Registration with up-to-date renewals. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects, of which all partners are registered with COA. Limited Companies, Private/Public Companies, societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture. The practice of profession of an architect is governed by the Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989 (as amended in 2003), which deals with professional ethics and etiquette, conditions of engagement and scale of charges, architectural competition guidelines, etc. Pursuant to these Regulations, the Council of Architecture has framed guidelines governing various aspects of practice.

9.6.2    The Council prescribes qualifications and standards of education being imparted in institutions imparting architecture education. It set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission, course duration, standards of staff & accommodation, course content, examination, etc. These standards as provided in the said Regulations are required to be maintained by the institutions. The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts. The COA is required to keep the Central Government informed of the standards being maintained by the institutions and is empowered to make recommendations to the Government of India with regard to recognition and de-recognition of a qualification. The COA Website provides act, rules and regulation of the Council of Architecture (COA). The site lists all institutions, colleges and universities that offer courses in architecture in India. The site provides detailed information on various aspects of architecture designs and practices. It also provides important legal judgements relating to registration as architect. The site also provides other rules, regulations and Government notifications. Under its events and activities section, the site provides ongoing competitions, other events and activities in the field. Visit http://www.coa-india.org/

9.7          Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR): The CSIR has its own  separate identity since its inception and contributed in all areas of Science Technology with special reference to the Agricultural areas  of interests to the nation..

9.8          Dentists Council of India (DCI) : Dentists Council of India, constituted under the Denstists Act, 1948, is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament to regulate the dental education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India. The Council is responsible for according recognition to dental degree awarded by various universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in India. The Dental Council of India (DCI) lays down minimum requirements in respect of staff and infrastructure and prescribes the syllabus and the scheme of examinations.Visithttp://www.dciindia.org

9.9       Distance Education Council (DEC): Distance Education Council was constituted under statute 28 arising from Section   25 of the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985. The Distance Education Council (DEC) is responsible for the promotion and coordination of the Open University and distance education system and for determination of its standards. The Council provides academic guidelines to promote excellence, encourage use of innovative technologies and approaches, enable convergence of all systems and sharing of resources through collaborative networking for access to sustainable education, skill upgradation and training to all. Visit www.ignou.ac.in/dec/

9.9.1     With the growth, development and expansion followed by creation of Open Universities all over the country under Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), set up in 1985 and thereafter Distant Education Council (DEC), a statutory authority under the IGNOU Act for the promotion and coordination of  Open University and distance education system and for the determination of its standard, the data collection and compilation work on correspondence and distant education statistics by UGC were stopped and the same was transferred to the VEC based on the recommendations of the Committee/ constituted by MHRD. All statistics on correspondence and distance education would be collected and published by the Distant Education Council. DEC has started collection of statistics on correspondences and distant education. IGNOU is offering programs and courses leading to certificates, diploma and degrees in different disciplines/trades in distance mode. The DEC also provides development funds to open universities and other such institutions from the funds given by the Central Government. Various parameters and information about open universities being collected thus be supplied to the MHRD to make use of the same as a national centralized data base in a regular manner.

9.9.2     However, a recent Committee on Higher Education was of the view that the opinion is divided on the power of the DEC to recognize/ approve the courses/ degrees being offered by the various other universities/institutions in the country by distance mode. Question was raised that DEC having been created under the Act of a university should not have such jurisdiction in respect issuing notifications to universities asking them to get their programs approved quoting a particular Gazette Notification regarding students not being eligible for Central Government jobs, if they pursue courses not approved by the DEC. Many of the universities are not prepared to accept the DEC jurisdiction in this regard mainly on the ground that the DEC was a body under IGNOU Act. Moreover, DEC has not similar status as that of the like AICTE Statutory Councils in respect of Courses and promotion of Institutions and there is of course only one Commission on Higher Education i.e. the University Grants Commission. As a result, a lot of confusion has been created and heat has been generated. The matter in regard to courses being offered by the recognized Universities is at all not be under the control or purview of VEC as the recognized Universities have the right to undertake its own courses as per its strength, structure, academic control by authorized Academic Bodies/ Administrative Management Council/Governing Body/ Council/ Syndicate following the Act of the University until and unless it is not deviating from the standard, quality of courses duly recognized by the competent course approving Statutory Authority,  quality teachers or lack of infrastructure and  facilities. Thus the matter may be looked into by the UGC and the MHRD seriously before causing any interference into the universities’ internal matter and going far ahead. As far as DEC is concerned, there is a need to have a separate Act for the DEC for making it a regulatory body for Open University and open learning system and distance mode on the lines of AICTE or UGC but restricting only to open learning system and open universities. Moreover, the mandates of open Universities / DEC to cover highest degrees like PhD in some subjects also needs to be reviewed seriously especially when there are some inherent drawbacks present in this system of education e.g. lack of quality faculty members and dedicated teachers at the study centers, non-availability of relevant and quality study materials, lack of basic facilities like good libraries, modern labs, computer, multimedia facilities, timely dispatch thereof of the materials, lack of essential infrastructure which are not at per with the highest level of degree to be offered in the areas. The major issues need immediate redresses. Absence of an effective deficient information dissemination system to the students about various type of course, examination schedules, results, degrees, etc. causes great hardship to students. Even at the IGNOU (HQ), students have to run from pillar to post for these things. These aspects be looked into urgently with a view to provide an adequate and efficient delivery mechanism and support system in the IGNOU and other Open Universities. IGNOU has practically no accreditation and assessment system to enhance and maintain quality of education provided through the distance mode. The students of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) are projected as poor cousins of mainstream students. Students coming through ODL channel are found to be lower in ability and performance as compared to the mainstream students. The Committee is perturbed to note that pass percentage of ODL students is very unsatisfactory which needs immediate measures with quality and standard education to make it as a popular and affordable system. Further, the open universities were able to raise some revenue by running various courses offered through distance mode; there was no facility of fee concession available to eligible students in the ODL system. The fees in this system should also be rationalized with preference to the economically disadvantaged group and meritorious students in fee concessions or assistance.

9.10      Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) : ICAR has established various research centres in order to meet the agricultural research and education needs of the country. It is actively pursuing human resource development in the field of agricultural sciences with the support of numerous agricultural universities spanning the entire country. However it also provides funding to State Agricultural Universities, a Central Agricultural University and relevant Deemed Universities. The ICAR has now also been given the status of Deemed to be Universities for running courses in Agricultural Fields. It has thus been giving emphasis to have the strength of the required teachers and essential human resources in performing such academic related functions of teaching to continue as a Deemed University.  Recently the ICAR though one of its statistical connected unit has created certain facilities for dealing 47 Agricultural Universities to deal with. The data base though is at the initial stage of development with responses not very promising from the universities who even have been enjoying and capitalizing resources. The ICAR has also quite good number Agricultural centres around the country having certain computer facilities which are essentially needed to be utilized to produce better results for the purpose of collection of higher education statistics & information. The facility may be useful with time to come with continuous updating of the information having dedicated efforts of mobilizing authentic data acquiring and requiring in the areas of interests. These universities employ about 26,000 scientists for teaching, research and extension education; of these over 6000 scientists are employed in the ICAR supported coordinated projects. Visit http://www.icar.org.in

9.10    Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR); This is a separate Body working on all aspects of History in the Country in the light if working as the Council

9.11    Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR); Dealing with all aspects of Philosophy of this nation in the form of a Council

9.12    Indian Council of Social Sciences & Research (ICSSR) :  A Body similar to other cOUncil dealing with all aspects of Social Sciences and Research of this Country

9.13   Indian National Science Academy (INSA): The Indian National Science Academy, established in January 1935, with the object of promoting science in India and harnessing scientific knowledge for the cause of humanity and national welfare, was earlier known as the National Institute of Sciences of India (NISI), the outcome of joint endeavors of several organizations individuals and the Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) playing a leading role in this regard.

9.13.1   The then Government of India, during  the end of 1930, wrote to various State (then provincial) Government, Scientific Departments, Learned Societies, Universities and the ISCA seeking their opinion on the desirability of forming a National Research Council which would adhere to and cooperate with the International Research Council and its affiliated Unions.  Sir Richard Gregor, the Editor of Nature visited and discussions were held with the Editor of Current Science for the promotion of an Indian Academy of Sciences. The composition and functioning of such a national council in the form of a proposal, framed by various eminent scientists, were put up in the form of resolution to the ISCA during its Pune Session.  A special meeting of ISCA, held in Mumbai in January 1934, considered the scheme and   on the plea made by the President of the ISCA, Professor MN Saha in support of an Indian Academy of Sciences on the model of the Royal Society, London, the General Committee of the ISCA unanimously accepted the proposal for the formation of a National Scientific Society.  An’ Academy Committee’, constituted by the General Committee, prepared a detailed report in January 1935 incorporating (i) the aims and objects of the National Scientific Society to be formed; (ii) draft constitution; (iii) names of 125 Foundation Fellows selected by a Special Committee and the same was placed by Dr LL Fermor (President, 22nd Session, ISCA) before a Special Meeting of the Joint Committee on January 3, 1935.  The recommendations of the Academy Committee were accepted by unanimous resolution by the ISCA and the foundation of the National Institute of Science of India as an all India body of scientists was thus laid.  On January 7, 1935, an inaugural meeting of the National Institute of Sciences of India (NISI) was held under the Chairmanship of Dr JH Hutton (President, 23rd Session, ISCA) in Calcutta, and the Inaugural Address was delivered by the first President of NISI, Dr LL Fermor.  The Institute, thus, started functioning with its Headquarters at the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1 Park Street, Calcutta, from that day.

9.13.2   After ten years of its foundation, the issue of the Government recognizing the NISI as the representative body of the scientists was taken up and after due deliberations and discussions, in October 1945 it decided to recognize the National Institute as the premier scientific society representing all branches of science in India.  The Headquarters moved over to Delhi in May 1946 and the Government commenced providing increased grants to meet expenses on travel, publications, research fellowships, and for allocating grants-in-aid to other scientific societies for bringing out their publications.  A capital grant for the Headquarters building was also sanctioned in 1948 by the Government.  The foundation stone of the building was laid by Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, on April 19, 1948.  The Office of the NISI moved to its present premises on Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi in 1951.  It was designated as the adhering organization in India to the International Council for Science (ICSU) on behalf of the Government of India in January 1968.The name of the National Institute of Science of India was changed to the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) in February 1970.

9.13.3   Objectives :

9.13.3.1     Promotion of scientific knowledge in India including its practical application to problems of national welfare.

9.13.3.2     Coordination among Scientific Academies, Societies, Institutions, Government Scientific Department and Service.

9.13.3.3     To act as a body of scientists of eminence for the promotion and safeguarding of the interests of scientists in India and to present internationally the scientific work done in the country.

9.13.3.4     To act through properly constituted National Committees, in which other learned academies and societies may be associated, for undertaking scientific work of national and international importance which the Academy may be called upon to perform  by the public and by the Government.

9.13.3.5     To publish such proceedings, journals, memoirs and other publications as may be found  desirable.

9.13.3.6     To promote and maintain liaison between Science and Humanities.

9.13.3.7     To secure and manage funds and endowments for the promotion of Science.

9.13.3.8     To perform all other acts may assist in, or be necessary for the fulfillment of the above-mentioned objectives of the Academy.

9.14   Indian Nursing Council (INC): The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxiliary Nurse-Midwives and Health Visitors. Amongst other things, the Council is empowered to make regulations for:

a.     Prescribes the standard curricula for the training of nurses, midwives and health visitors; and for training courses for teachers of nurses, midwives and health visitors, and for training in nursing administration;

b.     Prescribes conditions for admission to above courses; and

c.      Prescribes standard of examination and other requirements to be satisfied for securing recognization. Visit http://mohfw.nic.in/kk/95/ib/95ib0301.htm 

9.15    Indian Science Congress (ISC): It is strong Forum of Indian Higher Education Committee in the progress and    development of Sciences in the Country and takes all measures . Similarly other Congress are organised by other forums in different fields

9.16       Medical Council of India (MCI): The Medical Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India. The Council is empowered to make regulations relating to: the course and period of study, including duration of practical training to be undertaken, the subjects of examination, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in universities or medical institutions for grant of recognized medical qualifications; the standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for medical education; and the conduction of professional examinations, qualifications of examiners, and the conditions of admissions to such examinations. The Council is also responsible to give its recommendations to the Central Government for establishing new medical colleges, opening of new or higher courses of study and increase in admission capacity in any courses of study or training. MCI website provides for a list of courses and colleges recognized by MCI in searchable interface. Search can be university, state or course wise.Site also provides status of application of medical professionals who apply for registration of the MCI. Visit http://www.mciindia.org

9.17       National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC): UGC Established Inter University Centre, Arageni Bhavana 2/4, Dr. Rajkumar Road, Rajajinagar, Bangalore - 560 010 : The UGC has established NAAC evaluating the performance of the universities and courses conducted by the universities, in order to improve the quality and standard of the institution. The office of NAAC was established in Bangalore and the accreditation, at present, is done on a voluntary basis. National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) was established by the UGC in September 1994 at Bangalore. NAAC’s mandate includes the task of performance evaluation, assessment and accreditation of universities and colleges in the country. The philosophy of NAAC is based on objective and continuous improvement rather than being punitive or judgmental, so that all institutions of higher learning are empowered to maximize their resources, opportunities and capabilities. Assessment is accomplished through a process based on self-study and peer review using defined criteria.

9.17.1    Grading System: Understanding variance in the type of institutions, the seven criteria have been allotted differential weightages.The weightages marked below are used for calculating the institutional score.

Criteria

Unit of Assessment

 

Universities

Affiliated/Constituent Colleges

Autonomous Colleges

  Curricular Aspects

15

10

15

  Teaching-Learning and Evaluation

25

40

30

  Research, Consultancy & Extension

15

05

10

  Infrastructure & Learning Resources

15

15

15

  Student Support and Progression

10

10

10

  Organisation and Management

10

10

10

  Healthy Practices

10

10

10

    The criterion-wise judgement of peers and the weightage to criteria will be used for calculating the composite score as follows:
Institutional Score =


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